|Most legendary Mongol wrestler Bayanmunkh Kh.|
Now we talking about human genetics. A Haplogroup is a group of similar "haplotypes" that share a common ancestor. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) test determins a haplogroup. In human genetics, most commonly studied haplogroups are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and Mitochondial (mtDNA) haplogroups. Y-DNA is passed from father to son and mtDNA is passed from mother to child of both sexes. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the English alphabet , and refinements consist of additional number and letter combination. You can find more information on that on Wikipedia and elsewhere.
Genetics tells me where I came from and who I am. Y-DNA tells me that I belong to Haplogroup called C3. Haplogroup C3 is a Y-Chromosome DNA mainly found in indigenous Mongolians. The subgroup C3b is quite common among males of the indigenous people in North America, so my drunken native American friend could have been right. As to the claim of those kind Koreans, I must disappoint them because they belong to the other group: Haplogroup F. We said "Goodbye" to each other 60.000 (sixty thousand ) years ago when haplogroups C and F were separated. Koreans are more "related" to the Chinese, Arabs, English who all belong to group F. Hard to believe that they "fell" from the same "tree" because they look so different today! (imagine an Englishman standing next to a Han-Chinese). But genetics wouldn't lie and we all have to believe the science, right?
So, where is the C3 mostly found, you may ask. Most of the Mongols (including those Mongols living in so called Inner Mongolia/China and Buryat Mongols living in Buryat republic/Russia), Khazara (minority in Afganistan, descendants of Mongols, terrorized and killed by mass during the Taliban regime; C3 up to 40%), Kalmyks ( Republic of Kalmykia of Russian federation, a Mongol tribe much suffered especially after WW2 during the Soviet regime), Kazakhs (people in Kazakhstan, and Kazakh minority in Mongolia) have a higher C3 percentage.
Kazakhs are descendants of certain Turkic tribes and have own language. How come they have such a high C3? Kazakhstan's scientists have been working on this for many years now to answer this question. Of course, one can imagine many different attitudes from them towards the Mongols; some are nice, and some are not. Yet, there is a great propaganda going on to make Chinggis Khan as a Kasakh, as I mentioned before. During the Soviet era, Soviet-Russians wanted the people to believe that Kazakhs used to be tall Europeans with blue eyes until Mongols invaded them and raped their women, which resulted in how they look today. Namely a Russian named Sergey Karjavin noted in his "study" that the higher C3 percentage among the Kazakhs comes from this invasion, and he dared even to state that today's Mongols are not the ancient Mongols but Manchus and Chinese. What a bastard!
Irish short-story master George Moore (1852-1933) wrote in one of his stories ("A Russian husband") that if you "Scratch the Russian and you will find a Tartar". With "Tartar" he meant the Mongols because back then Mongols were called mistakenly as Tartars (or Tatars). (There was a tribe called Tatar though). Of course he meant by that the "barbaric" nature of the Russian who "inherited" it from Tatars (Mongols) by blood. But genetic studies showed today that the Russians don't carry any "Mongol gene". So, if you "scratch" them you shouldn't "find" any Mongol. I think this is a good news for them, and the Russians should be relieved, but still, there are some people who don't want to accept it. A Russian Health ministry official named Vladimir Nujnii declared recently that half of the Moscow's population carries a Mongol gene and that is why they are alcoholic. What a shame! Now that the science proved that the Russians don't have Mongol genes, it means that he literally insulted own Russian people, specifically the Moscow's residents, including himself. I'll leave him to the native Muscovites regarding the punishment for insulting the entire city and its population. Зараза такая!
Of course, there are other nationalities who have C3 in lower percentage, but with up to 60% of C3, the Kazakhs are definitely closer to the Mongols than any other Asian nation. We have to wait though until the scientists find out how and why.