Thursday, May 30, 2013

Nothing personal Champ, but...

"The Champ" with his wife
I love him! I do. He is the greatest wrestler we had in the last decades. He won many times the champion's title in Mongolian traditional wrestling. He was also the World Champion in Amateur sumo wrestling. So he is a famous figure in Mongolia. He became later a politician, representing the former communist party, currently called Mongolian People's Party (MPP).  He is an MP now.

MPP decided to let him run for President's  office and so he is the one of the  two opponents against whom the  current President Elbegdorj, the candidate  from the Democratic Party (DP), runs now.  The other candidate is a female who is nominated from the offspring party of MPP named Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), chaired by N.Enkhbayar who was sentenced to 2.6 years in prison for misusing his position of power when he was the President of Mongolia.

Bat-erdene is his name, but people in Mongolia refer to him always as "The Champ". Read more on him at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badmaanyambuugiin_Bat-Erdene

My personal opinion is that he is running for the office not in the right time. Not that he cannot do the job, but the ones behind him won't let him do his job or do things rightly. I mean the political party where he "belongs" to. Right now MPP is furious about taking revenge for the defeat they had to swallow in recent elections. (Presidential election in 2009, Parliament's election in 2012, election of local governance in 2012)
So they (MPP) are really pissed off and will do whatever it takes, to win this Presidential election.
From their perspective, they made a right decision to nominate "the Champ" as candidate because like I said  there is not a single Mongol who doesn't know "The Champ" and does not respect him. Not a single soul!
In that case many would vote for him just because he is so popular!

The thing is that many people think that one should give the new government a chance to prove itself and that is there should be a like-minded team in order to work as a team. A team consists of the Government with the Prime Minister as the leader, the Parliament where DP is the majority with its coalition partners, and the President who supports the current power. Only then, a policy can go through and a plan can be worked out. If one of these three is from the opposition, there would be lot of  stall,  blocking, delay etc., which would eventually  slow down the progress and the whole country would suffer from it. Nobody wins.

But MPP thinks that they would win if they do so. Why? Because that way they can make it harder for the new Government to do its job and make look it bad. It does not matter if the country is not going forward or stay the same; the bad the better. The result? People will be disappointed and change their mind, and choose MPP next time. That is what they have in mind right now and they would have nominated even a sheep if the sheep   was so famous that everybody would vote for it.  So MPP is just using  "The Champ" for his prestige and influence.

Anyways, I hope that our people learned the lesson from the past 20 plus years when MPP ruled and promised always that they let us live in paradise if only they were given the chance. After all those years we stayed the same, living in hell instead of heaven. So think hard and don't repeat the mistake. I have personally nothing against "The Champ", in contrary, but like I said, it is so sad that he is being victimized by this party.
Sad, sad situation. But what we can do? So, let's have a team of "Three  Musketeers" who says, "All for one, one for all!", and let them do their job to make us happy!

Some pictures of our famous man, "The Champ", for you to enjoy!

Champ on the left, in Mongolian traditional wrestling championship 1998 (with Sumyabazar)

Representing Mongolia in the Olympics

"The Champ" ,left, with another champ (Usukhbayar)

"The Champ" won another  Championship (on the shoulders), while the current President is waiting to take a picture of him (red arrow). Back at that time current President Elbegdorj was a journalist and both were caught here together.

Believing in Buddha

The Champ in the middle (left Sumyabazar, right Asashoryu-the famous Sumo champion)

Largest Mongolian wrestling tournament with 6002 participants. It was organized by the Mongolian National Wrestling Federation (Mongolia) and was held in the capital city in 2011. "The Champ" was among them.

There he is, looking at you! (on the right)

"The Champ" in combat uniform since he was the chief of the Police athletes

During a Naadam festival at the stadium

"The Champ" became the World Amateur Sumo champion defeating this 550 pound guy from the USA

"The Champ"(right) having lunch with Asashoryu, the Sumo champion

"The Champ" is all dressed up for the event

"The Champ" and his horse

In Khentii province where "The Champ"  is born

Having some serious talks

Campaigning in the countryside

Meeting with Kazakhs, the minority in Mongolia, during his campaign (dressed up in Kazakh costume)

Speaking with a Buryat oldie at the countryside

Taking picture

Thursday, May 23, 2013

Madame Eegii

(posted initially on 12/6/12)
"Ancient" pirates were represented by only male personas with an exception of a very few females who would dress like a man and pretend to be a man. It was forbidden to have a female on board.
"Modern" piracy has no sex "discrimination". One famous example is "Madam Wong" whom the police in Japan, Hong Kong, Philippines , Macau, Taiwan, and Thailand  are chasing after for centuries.  But "the Queen of the pirates" of the seas of South East Asia was never caught, and until today "Madame Wong's" treasures are being searched for everywhere.
Mongolia has requested Interpol to hunt down an  "offshore pirate" named "Madame Eegii", a Mongolian citizen.  Her full name is Enkhtuya Nambar and she is a sister of our ex-president Enkhbayar Nambar who is convicted  for misusing his position and corruption and sentenced to  4 -year jail term. He is the "Godfather of corruption" in Mongolia. "Madame Eegii" as his younger sister was his closest ally and partner. She is disappeared after her brother started  having "problems" because of his sins committed  in his "good, old times". It seems true when people say that Enkhbayar's conviction was nothing compared to his real crimes.

What are we talking about?  Three luxurious and fancy houses in America, elegant and expensive dwellings  in Moscow, London and Beijing, the vacation center next to the Baikal sea, registered under his mother's name, mineral water resorts under his father's name, 200 million USD investment in a skyscraper in the capital city among other billion's of Tugrik (Mongolian currency)  savings, including $1.5 billion saving, and money laundering cases in Singaporean and Hong Kong banks  rumored in foreign medias recently, etc.
All these  are worth of billions of dollars and how  a president can possible earn all this during his terms?
Yes , he was a Prime minister and Speaker too, but this amount of treasures  is simply not possible to collect by this one man with his salary. So there must be something else except his salary.  Salary plus what? Money laundering, stealing, bribes! Now we are talking!
But who is owning and "moving" all this around? Not Enkhbayar. He is in jail, right? (Well, actually in a hospital) You guessed it! It is nobody but his lovely sister, our modern  day "pirate"- "Madame Eegii".
Last time  she was in charge of all businesses connected directly and related to an agency called "Mongolia Ship Registry Pte LTD.", based in Singapore.
So she was not called for no reason as "Madame Eegii" and  "honored" as "pirate" because she was the "boss" of all ships flying the state flag of Mongolia, wasn't  she? She lived in Singapore for so many years "taking care" of all money going in and out, and of course "washing" the money her brother has sent her.  Why would she go "underground" if she is clean? And remember, she vanished as soon as her brother (our dear ex-President Enkhbayar) got in trouble, without any trace.
The Mongolia Ship Registry (MSR) is, according to the statement on its website, the exclusive authority, appointed by the Mongolian government and based in Singapore, to process applications for ships registering under the Mongolia flag. MSR is fully authorized to issue all the necessary documents and certificates, and administer the registration system on behalf of the Mongolian Government.  Based in Singapore, where financial and legal services are readily available, the MSR is well positioned to take on the challenge of providing efficient and quality services to ship owners who choose to have their vessels  fly the Mongolian flag. 

If we (or the famous INTERPOL to be exact) catch her, then it will be like we hit a huge gold mine. But it's been a while since we asked Interpol for  help and it's kinda  impressive how can she hide herself so well until  now, even from Interpol. The Interpol had no problem to find out that 27 international terrorists were hiding in Mongolia, and  supplied  Mongolian police with their pictures and information. 7 of them must be from Japan and the remaining people are from Palestine, they say. But our "Madama Eegii" seems like to  be more clever than those 27 men. If she gets  caught, her brother will fall in much deeper hole from where he is not gonna make it alive and that is why it's important not to be caught. She is maybe considering a "harakiri" in case the Interpol succeeds.

Speaking of Interpol, we requested also to find a man, former city official, named Biligt who managed to escape to US fearing of his possible conviction in corruption and bribery. He is still at  large amusing himself by messing around  with Interpol. Maybe he is working for Walmart, strip-waxing the floor.
There is a guy, a whippersnapper, named  E. Erdenejamyan who became a newly  Deputy Minister of Justice Ministry, and he sent a letter asking the Interpol to stop searching for both "Madame Eegii" and  Biligt. That was an act way out of his "jurisdiction"! But he justified his dumb act as an example of free speech! What an idiot! You wonder why? Because he is  a member of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) which sprang from current Mongolian People's Party (MPP). MPRP was a "brand" name for our communists for a long time during the one-party rule.
MPP claimed the "brand" name of MPRP as it own, and didn't want  the "party deserters" to use this name, but the newly "drop-outs" were  allowed to use this  "brand" name anyway for their new party, by court's decision.

Meanwhile, Enkhbayar is considering a hunger strike, again to protest his sentence (his sentence is being reviewed by High Court) and to force his liberation. And his party members have started acting seriously. The cabinet members in the coalition government  from this party were ordered to resign from their positions. A female MP from this party (MPRP) has announced that she will start a hunger strike to demand that Enkhbayar be released immediately. MPRP is in the move.

No wonder because this party is one-man's party! It is Enkhbayar's party. He owns it. He is the head of this party and they intend to  do anything  to free their chief and to make him "innocent".
Only then our "Madam Eegii" can come back home from her "voluntary-exile" without any fear to be punished. But that is very unlikely though. Sorry, "Madame Eegii"!

Bad girl, bad girl, whatcha gonna do, whatcha gonna do, when we come for you!? 

Tuesday, May 21, 2013


(Initially posted on 6/19/12)

Young Mongol Lamas
A friend of mine says, his son is studying  Buddhism in India and he is doing fine. Well, that's good to hear, but I started  to worry about his son and other young  "Lamas" who are sent there on a mission to become spiritual masters of Buddhism. (The term "Lama" originates from Tibetan language, meaning  "priest".)

Nowadays we say, Mongolia is now rich on "Nam"  and  "Lam". Nam means "party" (political party)  in Mongolian and "Lam" derives from "Lama" (Buddhist priest). Total of 21 political parties are registered officially today in Mongolia. Way too many for 1.8 mill. people who are eligible to vote.  One can expect much higher number  of Lamas but unfortunately  I could not find out how many Lamas we have today.
I heard that in earlier times when every family had "own" Lama, the total number of Lamas was very high compared to the whole population back then.  The capital city of Mongolia must have had alone 100 thousand Lamas practicing in many temples back in 1920s.

According to the "Lama rules" , they were not allowed to marry and that was one of the factor to hinder Mongolians to grow in numbers. Plus, the previous wars with its neighbors, China and Russia, and beyond, caused devastating loss in number of people. No wonder that in proper Mongolia live today not even 3 mill. people. (Yes, there are some more Mongols live in Buryatia- a Republic of Russian Federation, and in Southern Mongolia, aka "Inner Mongolia" - now a province of China.)
But  today's subject is  "Mongolian Lamas in India". Why I should worry about young Mongols going to India or Tibet to study Buddhism? The following story will explain why.  This story is  about a young Mongolian guy  who went through all this nightmare I want to share with our readers.

Our hero  was a normal country boy who became a "Lama" at a countryside temple at the age of 12 because his parents and relatives believed that he was the "born-again-soul" of the deceased Lamas who were his relatives and were shot to death by the communists around 1937.

He sure was a smart boy and  soon became one of the best young Lamas, fluent in Tibetan language.  In 2003, a high-ranked Lama visited  the region where our hero lived, and decided to allow 3 best Lamas to study further in India.

It was a delightful news for him  and his family. The only problem was the cost of $3000 which was way too much for a family of this level of living standard.  But they  managed somehow to  collect the amount,  by selling their animals and  by borrowing money, and some donation from  local  people helped too.
Finally, he headed to India, via South Korea, amazed and excited from all the never-seen-before things which were totally strange  and interesting to a boy who even never visited  the capital city of his own country.  He flew to Bombay, India, and drove to Bangalore  and then to a  village   called  Bylakuppe  where he and his other two lama-friends will  be living and study. 

Bylakuppe is home to two  of  several  Tibetan  settlements  which were established  on lands leased by the Indian government to accommodate  some of the Tibetan refugees who came to settle down in India after 1959.  Bylakuppe is located south of Kushalnagar town  and is 240 km   from Bangalore Airport.

A large educational monastic institution called Sera  is located here and that is where our hero  came  to study. The famous Sera monastery.  It looks like a big  university campus where thousands of students live and study. The monastery has two colleges and  three main temples, and the monks receive complete knowledge  in the teachings and practices of Buddhism.

Morning assembly session at Sera monastery, India
Debate exam
Sera is home to some 15 thousand monks from many countries like Mongolia, Japan, China, India, Korea, Tibet, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines and others. A total of  70 monks  were  from Mongolia when our hero arrived with his two friends.  Three new Mongol monks were  shown nice and warm  welcome but soon  an old "student" monk  from Mongolia approached  them  and whispered , "Stay away from these Tibetan monks" and disappeared  without any explanation.  A new world was waiting for him. Rice, rice and again rice.  Plus, flat bread similar  to pita bread and some spicy stuff. Tough challenge for someone whose main dish was meat.
Debating with other monks was exciting; sometimes it led to a fist fight.

Not all 15 thousand lamas study Buddhism at this place. Sera monastery has its own  lands where the lamas  plant vegetables and other stuff   to meet  their own food needs.  The majority of those lamas, except the 2000 lamas who really do the studying, would work on those  fields instead of  going to classroom.

A very warm and  "too friendly"  relationship existed between the old lamas and young ones. One evening a Mongol monk suddenly disappeared and his  fellow monks  from Mongolia started looking for him but without success.  A monk from Nepal told the Mongols that Tibetan monks have  kidnapped him.
They couldn't find their countryman and the next morning  he was found laying in his bed. When they asked where he was, he  just cried. They have seen some blood spots  on his bed sheets. Rumors going around about devils kidnapping young lamas.

Our hero noticed that his roommate has changed and looked sad. When he asked if he was homesick, his roommate replied that one of the old lamas has been giving him love letters. His roommate said he is  ashamed of what happened  and that the old lama  has touched him and rubbed his fingers.  Our hero couldn't believe it. The next day at school our hero watched that old lame who was bothering  his roommate and saw him starring at his friend all the time and that he wasn't wearing an underwear.  During the breaks between the lessons, the old lama would touch his friend's arms and rub his backs while other lamas were amusing  about what was happening.  The  friend of our hero  could not do anything to stop this, let alone  protest.

It was unbelievable for our hero that a man could fall in love with another man, especially a lama. For him it was a sin. He decided not to let the old lama to his room but it didn't help a lot. The old guy would come to their apartment anyway and beg to let him inside to see the young Mongol lama. This Tibetan lama would even cry when he was not allowed to go in.
Once again a rumor went  around that the Mongol lama, who was kidnapped earlier once,  has disappeared again.

The kidnapped young Mongol lama came back soon, but he wasn't crying. His compatriots heard a rumor that he was  kidnapped and raped by 10 Tibetan lamas.  They must have taken him by threatening with knives which they carry all the time and  gang raped him in a dark room.

When our hero asked a fellow Mongol lama if that was true, he was told that this has been a tradition since the development of Buddhism. There is one secret here, his fellow Mongol lama said, and that is the homosexual prostitution among the lamas.  It is hidden under the cover name of the "Relationship between the teacher-lama and student-lama". There are big lamas who would not spend a single night without a young lama in his bed.

After hearing all this, our hero was disgusted and from now on he was  curious  about   the world surrounding him instead of concentrating on studying.  He learned that most of the older lamas have "own" partners, young lamas, and that about 500 young lamas practice prostitution. Prostitute-lamas take anything as "payment", clothes, food or  few  rupees (Rupee is the official Indian currency) . He learned also that many  young Mongol lamas  became "partners".

One day lamas went to see the mighty Ganga river, a symbol  of faith and hope. But it was a disappointment because the  famous Ganga turned out to be the most dirtiest river of the world.  Ganga became a cemetery for deceased people (bodies are  just dumped  in the river) , an open laundry for  washing  clothes, an open pool to wash one's bodies, a place to baptize new-born  children,  and a pot where  all the sewage  go in.

After two years of all  these experiences and disappointment, our hero decided to go home. Enough is enough. His back travel route  was not without adventures. Without money, there was no choice but to cross the India-Nepal border on foot, and he successfully entered Nepal. But it wasn't easy to go to China from Nepal. He spent even some time in immigration prison because of a  visa problem when he was in Nepal.  He lost all hopes when he was in prison, but one day , to his surprise,  there was a visitor to see him.

A Mongolian journalist headed to Nepal  with his friends to make a documentary film and that is when they heard about our hero. They got  somehow the permission to visit our hero at the prison  where they found out what happened to  him. They told him to stay strong for a month and promised to help him. They kept their word and thank  the help from  Buyanbadrakh M., the journalist from NTV, and S.Otgonbaatar who  donated all the costs , our hero is back to Mongolia, safe and sound. I want to use this opportunity to thank those two guys for everything they did for this  poor boy.

He has no  desire to practice Buddhism anymore, after all this nightmare and wants  to lead  a normal life.
He wants to have a family and be a good father and husband.
Everything our hero had to experience was a big lesson for our young people and their parents who want to send their boys to other countries, like India and Tibet, and  hopefully it will stop the growing trend of becoming lamas.
I personally oppose the fact that too many boys becoming lamas and that way building an army of a non-productive class which is obviously  useless  to our country where we are short of manpower anyway. 

Friday, May 17, 2013

Second spy after Nyamdorj Ts. ?

Another spy caught?  The former Mongolian Ambassador to Kuwait, K.Sairaan, is being now investigated by the General Intelligence Agency of Mongolia since he returned home from Germany where he had a surgery. He is an ethnic  Kazakh  , a well-known  person from the Kazakh minority living in western Mongolia. He used to be a member of the Democratic Party (DP), but he left it and got more sympathetic with Mongolian People's Party (MPP-former communist party) which supposedly granted him the "Ambassador seat" in Kuwait  for his switch of party affiliation. Then Prime minister and MPP chief S.Bayar must have honored him for his choice with this position as Ambassador. Now he is in trouble.

According to the information posted on a Russian website by Deputy  Secret Service  Chief of Kazakhstan, Mr. Tastanbekov E., the Mongolian Ambassador Sairaan K. was one of the four spies of Kazakhstan working in Kuwait.  Under a code name "Altai", he must have  worked for Kazakhstan's Secret Service and delivered highly secret information related to Mongolia-Kuwait relationships. He even allegedly joined the National Security Committee of Kazakhstan  although he was a Mongolian citizen. How is that possible?

Nyamdorj Ts.
Back in 1992, a couple of years after the peaceful democratic revolution, then-Deputy Minister of Justice Ts.Nyamdorj (currently an  MP), a quarrelsome figure from the MPP,  became  the "media superstar" for his cooperation with the Chinese Secret Service. Mongolian Secret Service agents had collected  enough documents to prove that he was "invited" twice to Beijing, China, and  supplied the Chinese agents with all the information they needed and in return received money and gifts. But he managed to escape any charges using his position and his Party which was then the ruling authority. Important evidences in his case were altered or destroyed  and all the powers (government, judiciary) were on his side, and that explains how he got away with his crime.

Now K.Sairaan has to explain his story. This would be the second case where a high-ranking government official got involved in espionage crime after Nyamdorj. The difference is that the ruling authority  today is less corrupt than when MPP was the ruler. So Sairaan should receive the right punishment if convicted.
This case shows again that our Secret Service should keep an eye on those  officials representing the country abroad because people like Ts.Nyamdorj and K.Sairaan can cause  great harm to Mongolia  and to the relationship of the affected countries as well.   

Wednesday, May 15, 2013

Inner and Outer Mongolia?

(first posted on 9/13/12)
by  Charlotte Temple


Mongolia. I just had the vaguest idea of where Mongolia was when I received a brochure announcing a trip that included Mongolia as well as Yunnan province in China. It sounded so foreign and so inviting. I'd be learning more about Genghis Khan and the Gobi Desert. I'd be sleeping in gers (the age-old nomad dwellings), eating traditional foods, meeting the people, seeing the landscape and finally learning about Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia.

After many hours in flight -- more than 22 from Boston! -- I finally arrived at the capital of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar. To my surprise, it was a bustling, very Western looking capital with all the cars, traffic, restaurants and high-end shops one would see anywhere in the world. 

Mongolia is a landlocked country with Russia to its north and China to its south. It is the 19th largest country in the world (slightly smaller than Alaska) with just fewer than 3 million people, half of whom live in the capital. It's a young country, with 34% of its population under the age of 15. Outside of the city, most Mongols are nomads and horses are at the center of their lives. They are the main mode of transportation in the countryside and children as young as three are taught to ride. We hoped to have a taste of the traditional national beverage of Mongolia called airag which is fermented mare's milk, but unfortunately there was none available. A reason to return?

There are very few actual "sights" in Mongolia, but there is much to see. To visit Mongolia is to have the rare chance of seeing a nomadic society in action. The traveler to Mongolia must re-adjust her or his expectations to see what is distinctive about the culture and geography and not to expect what isn't there. Unlike other countries where you travel to see museums or landmarks, Mongolia is a country where you go to see the scenery and the people and experience the beautiful unspoiled countryside. It is dramatic, vast and open with gers materializing in the horizon, an occasional galloping herd of horses or flocks of sheep and goats wandering across the road or into the cemeteries. 

Gers are white round felt-lined tents that dot the Mongolian landscape. They look identical from the outside but can be quite elaborate and customized on the inside. Gers are perfect for the nomads since a family can assemble and disassemble them in under an hour. I was looking forward to spending some time in the gers, and on this trip we spent nine days in three separate ger camps in different parts of the country.
Because the places we wanted to see were so far apart, we spent a great deal of time traveling by bus. 

My first impression was that the countryside was uninteresting -- gray and fairly indistinguishable in every direction. But as we spent more time on the road, I began to see subtleties in the sweeping landscape -- shades of gray turned into pale green which then turned into light brown, patches of shrub grass appeared and just as quickly disappeared. Some areas were quite mountainous, and some were so flat that I felt as if I could see the curve of the Earth in the distance. 

I was quite curious about the types of food we would get in Mongolia and was pleasantly surprised at the variety, bearing in mind that this was Mongolia, not Italy. The meat was "meat," and we were never quite sure whether we were eating mutton, beef or yak, but it was all nicely spiced, marinated and appetizing. The vegetables served were limited, but quite ample consisting mainly of carrots, potatoes and onions. We also had lots of flavorful yogurt and yogurt cheeses. We met a retired chef from Germany who volunteers his time at various ger camps training the kitchen staff on ways to make their foods tastier and presentations more eye appealing.

But probably the most fascinating part of Mongolia was the Gobi desert. It was endless. We watched the sun rise and the sun set in the Gobi. We rode the two-humped Bactrian camels. We explored Vulture Valley and the Flaming Cliffs of Bayanzag where dinosaur eggs and velociraptors were first found. We watched a sand storm approach and marveled at how half the sky was still blue and clear while the other half turned brown. The wind picked up and in seconds, the blue sky was gone... turned to sand. Some of us felt like it was a magical place. As we walked around our campsite, it seemed as if it was just miles and miles of miles and miles.

The difference between Inner and Outer Mongolia? Inner Mongolia is actually in China whereas Outer Mongolia refers to the actual country of Mongolia. Mystery solved.

Source:    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/charlotte-temple/photos-trip-to-mongolia_b_1850847.html#slide=1464103


Clarification and some explaining:

A word to those who wonder how come there are two Mongolia. Even for those who travel a lot like the author of the article above, it was a "mystery" what is all about "Outer" and "Inner" Mongolia, and it is still confusing for many more. I will try here  to explain it in a  few sentences.

1. First statehood on Mongolia's territories was formed  in 3rd century BCE ("Before Common Era" or BC-Before Christ,  if you will). It was called Khunnu Empire (also spelled as Xiongnu). So the Khunnu's were our ancestors.

Khunnu Empire (209 BC- 93 ), aka Xiongnu empire

2. In 198 BCE, Emporer of Han Dynasty of China  was defeated when he attempted to invade Khunnu territories.  He signed a treaty recognizing that all the territories to the north of the "Great Wall of China" belong to the Khunnu Empire  while the territories to the south of that wall should belong to Han dynasty of China. With that treaty the borders between Mongolia and China were set. Officially, so to speak.

3. In all other times except the above mentioned Khunnu Empire and  the Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khaan, Mongolic tribes used to maintain separate independent kingdom/confederations dividing the Mongolian territories. Since they suffered from constant struggle to gain the power over the entire territories and fought against each other often, those kingdoms became weak to defend themselves on their own against  foreign invaders, and even failed often to unite to fight against their common enemies. That is how Mongolian territories were divided in many parts, including the Southern Mongolia (aka "Inner"  Mongolia), Western and Eastern while the Central Mongolia  was  considered as the core.

4What is now "Inner" Mongolia was inhabited by Mongolic tribes and some non-Chinese people for a long time. They were all nomadic people. The history tells us that Chinese from the south tried to occupy this region and settle down during different time periods beginning  from as early as 340 BC. When they succeed migrant Chinese would move in and settle down and that is how they grew in numbers slowly. Especially during the Manchu Empire (Qing dynasty) period ,  lot of Chinese migrants moved to this region (Inner Mongolia).

5. The terms "Inner" and "Outer" originate from the Manchu  dynasty (aka Qing dynasty) period (1644-1912)  in China. Manchu people who were also nomadic  and called the Manchuria as their home , became powerful  and managed to bring Mongolian kingdoms under control and then  the Chinese territories as well.  The Manchus ruled the southern ("Inner") part of Mongolia directly while giving the northern (called "Outer") part  a special status by letting it just  pay tributes while  not interfering with its domestic matters.

Manchu Empire (aka Qing Empire)
6. Calling the Manchu Empire (or dynasty if you will) as "Chinese" Empire is totally wrong. But unfortunately it was and is still considered as a Chinese state internationally thanks to the confused scholars and their messages brought to the other world.  The thing is that Manchus have founded (not the Chinese) this Empire after they invaded Southern Mongolia (they called it "Inner" Mongolia because it was under direct control of Manchu Empire), Northern Mongolia (they called it "Outer" Mongolia because it was out of their "jurisdiction" if one excludes the paying tributes to them), Xinjiang (aka East Turkestan),  China and Tibet.
7.The fact that the Manchus made Chinese capital (Beijing) as its own and moved their government to this city should not be the reason to call  this Empire as Chinese.  The Manchus were foreign occupiers who ruled over  vast territories with the size of  13 million square kilometer (5 million square miles), including all the countries listed above, and were forced to end  their "career"  after a successful Chinese uprising in 1911. Of course there were many revolts and uprisings during the Manchus' rule but all were ended  unsuccessful  with the loss of tens and hundreds of thousand Chinese lives. Adopting Chinese style of governance and employing many Chinese officials shouldn't make this state "Chinese". Assimilation into the Chinese culture and lifestyle, or absorption into Chinese  as a nation during this time period and thereafter is a different question. As of today there are not  many Manchus of pure blood left in Manchuria.

8. China was ruled twice in  its history by foreign invaders. First the Mongols came and ruled there for about 100 years (1271-1368) and later the Manchus came (1644-1912) to rule for almost 270 years.
Ironically both invaders chose their capital to be on Chinese territory. Maybe they did it so because of the convenience of the  location and the mild weather which they liked. After their collapse both were kicked out of China but the Mongols kept their territories, even divided among their nobles when Manchus (i.e. Manchuria) were immediately became a part of China. So the claim by some  Chinese today that Mongolia used to "belong" to China (meaning  "Inner" and "Outer" Mongolia back in times of Manchu Empire) and therefore both should be part of China is absurd.  The answer is clear: The Chinese have never ruled in Mongolia and Manchu Empire (aka Qing dynasty) was not Chinese. So their claim is a pure nonsense.
On the contrary, we (Mongolia) should be claiming for our territory (of Southern Mongolia, aka "Inner"  Mongolia).

9. In 1634, after  "de  jure" King of Mongolia ( Ligden Khaan)  passed away, Manchus occupied the region what is now called "Inner" Mongolia, and that was the begin of Manchu's rule over that area while the northern part of Mongolia (current Mongolia proper) remained independent until 1691 when the Manchus finally brought it under their control. 
There was some uprising against the Manchu rule in "Inner" Mongolia but failed.

10. In 1911 "Outer"  Mongolia has declared its independence from Manchu Empire (Qing  dynasty) after its  collapse. Most of the noblemen of "Inner" Mongolia expressed their willingness to join  and be part of their northern  brothers but it didn't work out because of the conspiracy by  Russians and Chinese.
(In 1913-1914 "Outer" Mongolia has even sent  troops  to "Inner" Mongolia to free it from Chinese troops.)

In 1912 the Mongolian Government met with Russians to get their support in creating the Great  Mongolia including Mongolia proper and  "Inner" Mongolia  but  Russians didn't like the idea and refused to support. They preferred the Chinese request of giving  "Outer" Mongolia only a status of autonomy and "Outer" Mongolian officials were forced to sign the Three parties treaty in 1915. According to this treaty  "Outer" Mongolia became an autonomic region of China until the revolution in 1921 when Chinese were kicked out of the country.
"Inner Mongolia" bordering Mongolia 

"Inner" Mongolians meanwhile fought for their independence and  led a war against Chinese for 36 years until 1947 when it was given an autonomy  status and officially annexed to China, approved by major world powers. That is how it stayed, against the will of the native Mongols living in that region. The population consists now of 18 million Chinese and 4 million Mongols with the Mongols becoming the minority on their own soil.
The worse is that those Mongols were being pushed and discriminated by the migrant Chinese and Chinese policy, and their lands were becoming converted to mining objects, forcing the native herders to give up their traditional lifestyle more and more.

Buryat Mongolia (red) borders Mongolia
Their future is becoming very identical with the one of Buryat Mongols (a Mongol tribe) who live in Buryat  republic (borders  Mongolia in the north, a region annexed to Russia; used to have an official name Buryat Mongolian Republic but  the word Mongolia is no more included ) and becoming more "Russian", losing their original identity and language. The youngsters don't speak Mongolian at all and chasing after Russian girls to marry them while the older generation speaks still Mongolian (with Buryat accent) somewhat.

So "Inner" Mongolians (or southern Mongolians) and Buryat Mongolians (or northern Mongolians) are awaiting the same fate  in the future. Mongolia proper ("Outer Mongolia") remains as the mainland and the home of the Mongols, and  the magnet for  all Mongols in the world and will always welcome them.

A traitor

(initially posted on 11/16/11)

Was  Ts.Nyamdorj (or still is) a spy?  Was he a traitor who betrayed his country?
Mr. Nyamdorj Ts.,- current MP and Head of the Ministry  of Justice and Internal Affairs - was the Deputy Minister of Justice in  1992 when he got involved with Chinese agents under the umbrella of a "cultural  cooperation". It was a big sensation back then and he got away unpunished using his government position and party affiliation and influence.

 Now those secret materials are once again made available to the public, reminding us of his crimes. How on earth can his party- Mongolian People's Party (MPP)- still tolerate him who supposed  to be punished instead of being awarded with high government positions.

Is MPP also an anti-Mongol party because it defends a traitor?  I ask this question from the leaders of this party.
Following is the rough translation of those secret materials which show how our traitor had been communicating with the Chinese and what he was doing. Those are reports made by Mongolian agents to their superior.


Secret material #1:

                                    To Department Chair

 About the order   regarding  the "Cultural center"

The  agent has collected  the following information during the  meeting  with  the  "Head"  today:

- It has been a week since Yan Ju Hua, a chief of a penal  institution, Colonel Choindon, a chief of a women jail house, a company  owner, and Bold, who is the husband of Tseden-Ish have returned from a Beijing trip.

Before they left for Mongolia,  the woman from the "Cultural center"  has called Yan to meet him and gave the following instructions:

* organize a family-trip for "N" with his wife and children to China
* organize   somebody superior to "N" or the Deputy Prime Minister make a trip to China in coming July month (preferably somebody who is educated in Soviet Union)
* study  about the ratings of  15 political parties in Mongolia  and about  which party  has more chances to win, and what programs they offer. Get all those programs.

The "Cultural center"-woman  gave Yan also a letter addressed to the Cultural  attache of the Chinese Embassy in Mongolia and introduced him to this Embassy official.

The English translator, a Chinese man who came with Yan, has left for China last Saturday. This man got a visa for Russia issued here from the Russian Embassy. He said he is going to head to Russia once he is in Beijing.  There is something going on.

A Chinese named Jin En who lives with Yan has a dancer girlfriend named Selenge who must be  a daughter of  either the Deputy Minister of Agriculture or a Department Chair of said Ministry. Selenge's father came back from Moscow yesterday and she invited Yan, Jin En, and Yan's girlfriend (a Mongol girl).


Yan lives with Jin En and the English translator in a 3 bedroom apartment, Apt # 16 in building #15, but Jin En lives separately on second floor since yesterday.
The "Head" plans to move to his relatives dwelling in Chingeltei district due to high rent of the apartment.
Would have been useful if he stays with them.
Yan works hard to carry out the orders from the "Cultural center". He will leave soon and will come back.


* let's send a superior/chairman
* inform major Damdindorj about Yan

         Signed by Major Gerelchuluun


Secret material #2.                                

              To the Department Chair, Major Lkhagvadorj


About communication with the "Head"

The "Head" went to China on a private business from December 20 last year to January 8 of this year.  The "Head" was in Beijing and Khukh khot.
The following information is given when we met today at 11-11.30am:

"...When I arrived in Beijing I met with a man named Lyu Jun Shan who claimed to be a close friend of my father, and who used to be a Deputy Minister of Chinese Foreign Ministry at his home. He was laid off because of his bad performance and became a pensioner, and is about 60 years old.
He paid all my expenses for  2 days-stay  at a luxury hotel."

"When I was about to leave, he asked me to find   somebody who has no lower position than Deputy Minister of Justice Ministry and who is very reliable, and organize a trip to Beijing  on  my invitation .
It does not matter if that person speaks  Chinese or not; we'll handle it. I have some personal  reason  to meet  and  talk  with that person.  That person should come alone. But  keep shut your tongue when you are drunk and don't promise to anybody that you can afford it for somebody to make a trip to China."

" Mr.Lyu was also interested in how I  came to Mongolia and found a job. He assured me that the person can  come at an official invitation and stay at the largest hotel in Beijing all expenses paid for a whole month."


1. The "Head" could be exposed in China. In this case the Chinese may try to either get information  using his ignorance , or make him a double agent to get us hooked.
2.The "Head" is not exposed. In this case  the Chinese might have set a goal to  gather intelligence information and to spy on persons. Therefore we should clarify the given information and use this opportunity in either cases and test it.


- Mr.Lyu gave the "Head" his address and phone number asking to respond  soon.
-  We agreed to meet later  due to uncomfortable situation this time.

Signed by Gerelchuluun G.


Secret material #3

                                     Information  report

About the operation of an organization

According to the officials of the so-called "Center of the international cultural  cooperation of China", this center is not an official body but carries out its operation with the permission  of the  "higher organization".
It has 17 branches in China and receives 4-5 thousand guests from abroad a year. This  center operates under direct supervision of Pen Chun who is a Deputy Chair of a Standing committee of the Assembly of People's Representatives of China.

As the name of this organization suggests, this center must be involved actively in international  cultural relationships between China and other countries. But instead of pursuing cultural  cooperation with our country , it is more interested in our domestic political situation, economical crisis, the amount of loans and donations  we receive from other countries, and  carrying out investigations in regards to metallurgical industry and  collecting information.

They are especially paying attention to the coming election of the Parliament and  gave orders to some individuals to find out and report about the political parties, their rankings, ideology,  election programs and chances to win.

It might be possible that the fact that some individuals who work closely with this organization are trying to buy some "salvaged" military  techniques  like tanks and armored vehicles from us, is  to  study our military potentials and to use it for improvement of  own weaponry.
They are trying to buy  a tank for $750 per ton, and an armored vehicle for $450 a ton. Therefore those military vehicles need to dismantled so that they cannot be used for military studying purposes  if sold.

This center is also interested in Erdenet, a copper- molybdenum mining company, and making researches about why  Mongolians cannot use this mining in its full capacity. They study the possibility of buying copper for $700-750 per ton.

The above mentioned Chinese citizens who closely cooperate with this center are trying to establish joint ventures in cigarette  production, sewing industry and in other  service industries.
An attention deserves the fact that this "Center for international cultural cooperation of China" is trying to bring  one of our senior state or government official  to China on an invitation.



Secret material #4

                       To the Chair of the Department


About communication with  the "Head"

"The Head" gave additional  information to the previous ones when we met at the meeting place today between 2-2.50 pm.
"... Yan Ju Hua took me home  in Beijing  where he lives with his wife and children. Currently he works at the correctional institution Baganuur (in Mongolia) as contract worker and is 42 years old. He used to work as engineer in a carpet factory  in Beijing. Yan's father must have died during the "Cultural revolution".  Don't  know what he used to do for living..."

"...When I was there, an old man about 60 years old came to visit and we met. He claimed that he was a good friend of Yan's father and dismissed from his position of Deputy Minister of Foreign Ministry (of China) because he sympathized with the Soviets at  a meeting he had back then..."

"...He paid all my expenses and let me stay at the hotel called "Chinan Panda" for 2 days. Daily rate was 70 Yuan  for a single bed. He let  Yan Ju Hua also stay at the hotel. We would eat only three of us at the table for 10 people. He would ask questions like:
- how is the living in Mongolia
- how do the Russians behave
- why Mongolia is so poor when it has so much natural resources
- why did you came back  from Mongolia in 70s
- why did you return to Mongolia after laid off  because of serious matters
- how did you find a job and who helped you etc. and advised me to work good and take care about my reputation..."

"...He was curious about my ID for foreign specialist and wanted it translated and copied. Also the work address on that ID was of great interest to him. He told me that he was blamed for things he said in favor of the Soviets at a meeting.
He talked about finding a dependable person of a rank no lesser than Deputy Justice  Minister or Head of correctional institution and  organize a trip of that person (to China) on February 18. He told me to contact him by phone as quick as possible.."

"...He said that he is going to let him stay at the hotel "Beijing panda" for as long as wants (10 days to a month), all expenses paid and if that person  seems dependable he would talk about politics.  He didn't say anything more.."

Page 2.
"A guy who lives one floor down will leave this coming Sunday and  return on 28th of this month.  If I give his address and names, he will bring the invitation when he comes back on 28th.
Since Chinese New Year  celebration ends on February 15, it would be better if the minister visits around 18th or 19th of February, he was told."

"He gave the guy's card with a hand written statement from him about where he worked ,and what he used to do, written on a sheet of a notebook  with blue ink in Chinese. (attached with the translation)


The guy who lives downstairs is not known.  I gave the  agent  the address of "N" and told him  the following made-up story: -  "N" and I are close friends. When "N"  mentioned that he wants to go to China to do some shopping, I proposed  him  what you have told me and he agreed. It needs to be kept secret because it is a private matter and  might  affect his reputation. "N" does not know anything about our relationship. I explained to him that you are my acquaintance who travels lot back and forth, and it would not hurt if somebody has such a connection.   Tell him the same thing about me in that sense."

We talked about sending a letter to Yan on Sunday and  telephone him in Beijing.

1. pay attention when Yan returns
2. monitor "Head"'s phone until Sunday
3. when invitation comes, introduce "Head" to the person who goes. We should give instructions.

Signed by Gerelchuluun G.

p.s.  the  agent  is informed that he was awarded with a medal of 70th anniversary of People's revolution, and congratulated.  The Medal  is shown to him.


Secret material #5

         To the Department Chair,  Major G. Lkhagvadorj


About the "Cultural center"

The "Head" gave the following information when we met today:
".. Yan Ju Hua returned on 18th.  He was ordered  to arrange a visit of a  Deputy Minister of Mongolian Government  to China in the near future together with "N". He should get help from "N" through Tsao Do Pon  and Tun Sho Bin (female) of Cultural center. So, Yan is  in hurry to find a Deputy Minister and make him/her to visit  China as soon as possible..."

"...Yan was given 83 color photographs to pass them to "N".
It should have costed hundreds of Yuan.
While we were looking at the photos there was a woman sitting isolated and making notes of what we were discussing, and when I asked Yan about that woman, he said that she is an agent in civilian..."

"The chair of foreign relationship of the Cultural Center, a woman, who invited "N" to China on behalf of the Cultural Center stays with the  female agent  mentioned above. To my knowledge Yan Ju Hua  has an affair with the foreign relationship chair and has told me once that thanks to  her he has succeeded so far.
Her (Tun Sho Bin) husband is the administrator   of a big  market near the Mongolian Embassy in Beijing and his name is Sun Hao Bin."

"I noticed that those officials from the Cultural Center have offices  at the same hotel we  stayed. They pulled out the keys of  their rooms from their pockets. "

"Tun Sho Bin and Tsao Do Pon have ordered Yan to study the reason why Mongols can't use the full capacity of Erdenet mine. They gave him also the authority to buy copper from Erdenet for  $700-750 per ton."

"I have made a conclusion that this 'Cultural Center' is trying to make a connection to the Mongolian Government and establish  here own representation in any form. It seems like in their business is not only the Chinese Intelligence involved, but also their Government has its representation as well.
The policy of the Chinese is to bring Mongolia  closer by attracting  the high ranking government officials using the opportunity while Mongolia distances itself from Russia. The cause is not clear. Their account needs to be studied thoroughly".

"Yan is trying to buy tanks from the 162th Army in Amgalan. He pays $750 per ton because it is a high quality steel. But when he wanted the canon pipe  cut and wreck the inside of the vehicle by exploding , the Mongols didn't like the  idea and  demand to  load it as a whole."

"I heard the people of the Cultural Center saying that they want import even the junk but the customs is the main burden.
Yesterday  a lieutenant colonel and  major Tumurbaatar who is the Head of the patrol department of the metropolitan PD came to see Yan and talked about trading  400 tons of iron  in exchange for rice, candies and textiles. They agreed to meet at the Police Department in a minister's office on Monday at 9 am."

"Yan was first invited by Bold who is the husband of Tseden-Ish from the passport office. They are close friends. Yan  told me that he is willing  to get a credit  by carrying out the order of Cultural Center."

Clarification:  The  story about "cutting the canon pipe" and "blow up" didn't match with the one of "Ts".

- Inform "Head" sufficiently to understand the stuff and let him work actively  in regards to Yan
- Give the agent the  necessary instructions so that the agent would not get involved in crimes later on
- give "Ts" a mini tape recording  device  when  "Ts" meets  with Yan today at 4 pm.
- 2 photographs were taken for study purposes. (attached):
1. the woman with a white shirt and glasses on the left side is said to be from the Intelligence
2. in the next photo:  the third form the left with a white coat is the young woman Tun Sho Bin, and on her left is Yan Ju Hua. On the left of "N" is Pon Chun who is the Deputy of the State Council of China.
(the rest is known)

signed by Gerelchuluun G.

Secret material #6

                     To the Chairman  of the department


About the "Cultural Center"

The agent gave the following information after "Head" returned from a private trip to China :

"...'Head' met with the woman from the Cultural Center through her husband. She asked 'Head'   if Yan  gave her any message and when 'Head' asked about what, she said  that they want to invite  some more high ranking Mongolian officials. 'Head'  told her that  "N" is the only one 'Head'  met through business matters and there is no other such officials 'Head' knows.
She also asked about:
- raising the prices in March, and why
- whether there are enough supplies in the shops because of the raised prices
- how is "N"s mood  after he returned home
- if  "N" would do another trip
and 'Head' gave the appropriate answers.

Furthermore she told  'Head'  that even though the name of the organization is "Center of Cultural cooperation", our people are important government officials and  'Head' should not forget it and tell anybody about it either.  This time they gave 'Head' the booklet about their main office. Last time when they invited "N" they let "N" stay at big hotels.

Yan  has booked the return ticket for  21st  of this month. There are two Chinese coming with Yan.  The one is supply manager of a Beijing hotel and the other one is a shift supervisor. They provided services when 'Head'  was in Beijing, with food. They told 'Head' that they are going to come to Mongolia with  100,000 (one hundred thousand)  Yuan and buy a two room  apartment and start a trading business in Russia and Poland. If successful, they plan to establish a small business in Mongolia. Important is that their visa need to be extended for one year and  they want  that 'Head' helps them in this matter. They  promised enough money award  for the person who helps with their visa extension..."

-  'Head' is saying that Mao Guo Hu , secretary of the Cultural Center, is 70%  secret service person.
-  the husband of that " Cultural Center"-woman is trying to go to Mongolia soon.
- they use 'Head's ignorance and  it means  something why they would say things  like that  now

- officials need to be on alert regarding Yan
- let the 'Head' suggest  to invite the woman with whom Yan has connection, to Mongolia
- when Yan comes back let 'Head' and "Ts" scrutinize him to find out what new instructions he received

signed by Gerelchuluun G.

p.s. the booklet of the "Cultural Center" is attached.

Secret material #7

                      To Chairman of the Department 


About  Yan Ju Hua

'Head' gave some additional information about Yan:

"...When Minister "N" was in Beijing, Pon Chun (deputy of Li Pen) has met with Yan  and  told him that he needs to work on getting the copper from Erdenet, and in exchange Mongolia can get anything it wants."

"...Yan is not a wealthy man, but he is clever and knowledgeable.  He can deal with anybody and win others' trust.  He is not a member of the Chinese Communist Party and has been critical of the policy of current Chinese leaders. He says, someday will be a blood bath in Beijing.

Yan is trying to win the trust of Mongols he is dealing with and work hard to settle down here.  He  thinks that he can work here as a representative of the Cultural Center  after carrying out successfully the given order.
He had a letter from the Cultural Center and he was introduced to the  cultural affairs' official  at the Chinese Embassy in Ulaanbaatar. Yan met him twice inside the Embassy and it is unknown what they talked about.

Yan told me  to study the purpose of Minister "X"s trip to China and asked why he is hiding his biography.
He said "X" might be going to investigate..."

I told him, as you instructed me, that "..Minister "X" is traveling just to see other places like the Minister "N".
Besides, it was you who  wanted me to find such high ranking officials and persuade them to visit China. He might be going  in the free time between the sessions..."

"...Yan recently went to Russia with a woman who is a deputy chair of foreign relationship of a trade organization in a southern province of China. She is about 40. He will come back on the 1st and will  then go to China. He instructed me to make ready  the biography of Minister "X" by the time he comes back..."

"The husband of the  woman from the Cultural Center is coming in August with Yan. This woman supports Yan  in every aspects and has an affair with him. Her husband is the deputy administrator of the Hongkong market in Beijing.  She is planning to come later too. She drives a car of a foreign make with a government license.

Yan mentioned that there is likely to be happening a fight with Bolormaa  who is jealous because of Yan's  helping  to accommodate the deputy chair woman mentioned above and meeting  with  her constantly and taking her to Russia on a trip".

- Yan is working hard. Considering the need to study his work method, it is necessary to employ a Mongol person for that purpose. In that case  Bolormaa, who has a husband-wife  relationship with Yan, might be useful, although  'Head' and  "Ts"  have been working with him. Bolormaa will tell lot more about him even if she quits.
- The biographies of Minister "N" and "X" must be prepared as published in the newspaper and give them to Yan  through 'Head'.

signed by Gerelchuluun G.


Secret material # 8

                      To the Department Chairman


About the meeting with the "Guests"

At the  request of the "Guests" , assistant  "To" and citizen "N" went to their hotel  on 26th of this month  and met them  between 6pm and 8.10pm. The assistant  "To" who translated this  meeting  has provided the following information:

"...Although the appointment was set at 5 pm, "N" was late by  an hour. At the meeting were person #1 and #2, and also  "35".  It scared me to death when "N" told them that "To" just called   him  at 5pm about their arrival, after they greeted each other.  I had  told them that  I had a phone call from "N" at 10 am earlier in the morning.  "35" wondered about 5 pm and asked about it but I pretended  as I didn't hear what he asked and started immediately with the translation..."

"..."N" thanked again for the great hospitality  shown him when he visited in spring.  He inquired about the well-being  of the Chairmen he met, and  asked whether they still doing their job.  Person #1 (the husband of the woman from Cultural Center) responded   with a congratulation for  becoming an MP and said  that all the persons he inquired are doing well..."

"N" wondered why they are in hurry and said that he would  have hosted them if he had  knew it earlier.
Person #1 said that  they are glad to meet today and that they are going back tomorrow, once more congratulating with the election."

"...After that #1 has started straight with the questioning:

#1: - What questions are you dealing with at your sessions?  What  useful things did you discuss to favor Mongolian people?
"N":  Briefly explained about discussing projects of legislation at the sessions

#1: - Why don't you execute people who commit murders?
"N":  gave the appropriate explanation

#1: - What are you discussing  to make improvements in lives of Mongolian  people in 1993?
"N": gave some explanation

#1: - US, Japan and Korea are helping your country.  What country are you intending to develop deeper friendship and relationships  in the future with?
"N": - Those countries are helping us, but they are located far away. Mongolia is an old neighbor to Russia and China. Currently Russia has a difficult situation. So I assume we should develop relationships with China.

 #1: - That would be the best idea.
#2 (superior to #1) : - What do the Mongolians need now?
"N" : - The supply of goods seems to improve compared to last year, but there is a deficit in food products, especially rice and flour.

#1 : - What connections do you have with Minister "X" ?
"N" : - We were schoolmates and often had to communicate on official basis.

#1 : - Why "X" wanted to travel on private invitation when this  person holds  a higher position?
"N"  answered according to our instruction.

#1 : - When will you be able to come visit?
"N" : - impossible before December 5th. After that I might get some time.

#1 : - if you both want to visit on a private invitation  Minister "X" should write a personal letter to the Chairman of the Cultural Center, Mr. Mao Go Hua stating the willingness to visit China on private business.
But in your case there is no need of such a letter.  Minister "X" will be received at a higher level  if decides to visit.  If you both come visit together, you will be treated at different level, in  separate places..."

Page 2.

"...If "X" wants to visit officially then our Embassy in Ulaanbaatar needs to be informed and arrange  everything in front.  This would be a case between the two Governments.  Are you willing to come with "X" together?"
"N" :- I thinks so. Better together.

#1 : - Meet "X" in near future and find out in what way the visit should be. "35" and "To" will be leaving for   Beijing soon on business. Let them know about the decision. If you think there is no need to deliver it by these people, we will contact you  directly in English by phone or by telegram.  I will tell my wife  about  the situation and fulfill your  requests. We will receive you both.
(in this moment "35" has intervened saying that they have the invitation for "X" when #1 responded in Chinese,  "don't  say anything about it")

#1 : - Do you have any other request?
"N" : - No
#1 : - Did you gave the letter to the official  for cultural affairs of the Embassy here?
"N" : - Yes

#1 : - Do you see him?  He could be useful for you, so keep in touch. Can you help to extend "35"s visa for one year? This person  did  a lot to develop  the relationship of the two countries.
"N" : - Met him just once, to deliver your letter.  I  will try to influence in "35"s visa extension matter.
Let me know in front when you come to visit next time. I will receive  you in more convenient way.

#1: - We bought a mounted horn trophy of a wild goat for $80 in Bayangol hotel shop. Help us next time to pass the customs with two pairs of mounted head with horns of deer. We will pay any price.
Also get us cashmere shirts as many packages as possible.

And he reached for his bag and pulled out few ties and gave "N" as gifts.

"35"  held  it back when  a colored close-up photo showing   "35", "N", and a Deputy chair of a Standing committee during "N"s visit back in spring, was about  to be handed over to "N" as present. (We have this picture. G.G)

#1 and #2 bought a dinner for "N" at the  Ulaanbaatar Hotel in the smaller salon.
#1 paid in total 2139 Tugrik for that dinner and hiw wallet was full of 50 Tugrik bills.
#1 let "To" to translate the check-out bill and instructed to change the detailed bill which said 1 bottle of vodka, ...beers, ...sodas etc. to a simple note saying the "total cost for dinner with the Minister is 4200 Tugrik". The waitress was about 30 years old, and had short hair and red pullover.

On Monday evening they paid their hotel bill. A daily rate was $48, but this  was changed to  $700.
"35" was saying that his wife's sister had written this note.
After I met with "N" at the square and got his business card, and went to see #1, he asked questions like,  "what  was "N" saying", " what could be the purpose of their  visit". I told him, "how could I know the business of Government Ministers" and "it is not something of my capability", and "it was you who instructed me and "35" to find such persons and send them".

#1's father is still alive, a pensioner who retired from the Ministry of State Security. #1  has said that he got a permission from  the said Ministry to come here. "35" told me that he and his superior are from the Secret Service.


- an evidence to use for defining  Chinese interest area and work method.
- they came to gather some information from "N" and  to get familiar with the situation in person
- "35" and "To" will go this Friday to China for an  official trip  on behalf of the correctional organization
- following photographs  are taken:    #1, and #2 being together  with  "35",  the moment when they buying huge amount of postal cards and stamps, and  #1 and #2 handing it  over to a companion  on Monday
- the alleged  wife of "35" is 23 years old, unemployed and lives with her sister. She has no parents,and is not married. Her name is Bolormaa.

Page 3.

"To" assures that she has decent characters. (attached are the official envelops with printed address given to "To" by #1 and #2)


- the confidentiality  of this operation must be kept tight  (it becomes more serious)
- the visa of "35" expires on 30th. The Center of Registration and Information wouldn't want to extend it.
On Friday "35" goes to China and by that time try to give him a visa for  multiple entrance (because if he leaves, some other Chinese will take his duties and it is not sure if we can get the new guy)
I observed that they use "To" for translation and  for some small errands for now because "To" stayed for a long time in Mongolia, speaks Mongolian, knows many people and has lower level of education.
But if "35" learns to speak Mongolian fluently, "To" might be excluded from the game. Therefore we concentrate on studying him effectively and rapidly,  and making him to work for us . We have been informed that he does not agree with the policy of current Chinese leaders, and has marriage problems, and is not wealthy and loves money.
- meet with "X" and "N" to discuss and confirm further plans
- reveal Bolormaa's sister's identity through "To"s  "wife" 'Tu'. Meet with the woman who changed the bill of 2139 Tugrik to 4200 Tugrik.

signed by  Gerelchuluun G.


Secret material # 9

                           To the Department Chairman


Regarding  "35"

Assistant "To" has requested a meeting and gave the following information:

"...Yesterday "35"  has left with two others to help with their business. An office supervisor of the Chinese Embassy in Ulaanbaatar , Mr.Lyu has come to  the train station with his wife to say  goodbye  to "35". (what is his position? G.G)
Mr.Lyu and "35"  were seen standing isolated and discussing privately  before the departation. When the train arrived  Mr.Lyu  said to the train operator,  "This  is our man. Take him with you",  and  "35" was given  the first  compartment  in train car #5  just for him.

The other two Mongols took a separate compartment. "35" traveled without a ticket. Mr.Lyu gave a  package saying, "this  is a video tape with a recording made on September 30 at a  reception at Chinese Embassy and  show it to your family".

I was surprised why "35" never told me that he knows Mr.Lyu. It is also weird that only "35" was invited to the reception on September 30 and no one from the other Chinese  who were here on official business.

A man named Jan Lyu Min who lived with "35" at the same address has arrived yesterday from Beijing.  He works for a Hong-Kong- Chinese joint company. This time he bought an apartment, Apt.# 108, building # 30 in 15th micro-district. This apartment was bought for him by a Chinese about whom I mentioned to you earlier, through his connection and this Chinese also helped him to get visa  for multiple entries from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

He (Jan Lyu Min) told me the following:
- "the wife of "35" got very upset when she heard about  his situation in Mongolia, especially about his affair with a Mongol woman. She says either she will divorce or she won't let him go back when he returns. The husband of Culture Center-woman, Mr.Sun who was in Mongolia earlier met with me before I left for Mongolia. He brought 1000 Yuan given by his wife (Culture  Center-woman) and said it is a business money meant for "35"".

He said also that his company can   pay all expenses if "N" who was to visit  once before is willing to visit again. "Tell "N" about this proposal and if he agrees I can take him with me and I have the official invitation with me", he said.

Jan came to Mongolia with an authorization to invest 1.5 million Yuan and looking for a partner.

"To" added  that "35" is different than he expected, does not talk much, and is somebody with bad intentions, and does lot of things.

- "To" leaves on Wednesday
- Jan Lyu Min has arrived

- it is getting complicated, especially the fact that #2 met with Jan in Beijing and that Jan came to visit here;
explanation and analyses needed
- things regarding "35" need to be documented

signed by Gerelchuluun G.

=========================================================================Secret  material # 10

                            To the attention of 004

About the arrival of a person related to "XTA"

Assistant "Head" gave the following information:

"...Yan Ju Hua who has  connection with the "China Center of International Culture  Exchange" has been a week since he arrived. He told me personally  that he is here at the invitation of a trading company named "Hayan" which is located in Khukh Khot and has a branch here. He is currently staying at this  branch office.

He asked me to:
- help to meet with Minister "N"
- find out where Bolormaa is

He said he is planning to stay in Mongolia for longer period of time and  has brought a 19 years old Chinese girl with him and wants her to get enrolled at the Mongolian university. He also said that the situation in Beijing is getting difficult and  it might  become  complicated if Den dies.

- determine the purpose of the current visit of Mr.Yan
- 19-years old Chinese girl is unknown
- Bolormaa is a "secret girlfriend" of Yan; lives  currently at the countryside
- gave instruction to find Yan's  address and phone number

- take Yan under constant coverage
- report it to related departments

p.s. attached are materials for reference purposes  about the operation to check the information on  Culture Center given by "Head"; in total of 11 pages and 3 pictures

Secret material # 11

                              To attention of 004


About Mr.Yan's request for an invitation

The assistant "Head" reports:

"...Yan Ju Hua is currently in Beijing. He sent me his passport-size picture through a Chinese and ordered me either to send an invitation or come to Beijing.  I don't feel good and have not enough money. What should I tell?"


- Yan is known to us
- he is trying to do something in  connection with the election
- keep screening  his activity; give him an invitation in order to continue the "test" operation and let him come; arrange  the cover-up

p.s. attached are the appropriate materials

Secret material # 12


About Ushu Yan, and Sun Lyan

The assistant "Head" reports:

"... I met with the consular chair of the Chinese Embassy, Mr.Bai, to give him the invitation for Yan Ju Hua. He said, "...the Mongols and Chinese know that you play games for cash. I might go back this summer. Li Ji Yan who worked in  Mongolia before, will take over my job. Help Ushu Yan as much as you can."
He also said that Yan's invitation will be given to the train operator from Khukh khot to get it delivered.

A Chinese  told me that  Sun Lyan who lives in Apt.# 42, building # 19 in Sansar micro-district, is an agent of secret service of Khukh khot,China.  An argument between these two because of some money issue prompted him to say that. Ushu Yan lives with his wife in Apt.# 46, building # 15 in Sansar micro-district. He once smuggled $120,000 from Russia and hid it  at the Chinese Embassy; the police searched his apartment but couldn't find anything.  Lately Mr.U would keep his money (Tugrik and Dollar) at the Embassy and he travels to China often and brings lot of dollars borrowed from the bank..."


- Diplomat Bai is known to us
- Yan's invitation is given to him
- Mr.Bai leaves and Mr. Li comes instead
- report it to appropriate departments

Secret material # 13

About the meeting with Tao

1. Since what year do you know about Nyamdorj?

I happened to know him since 1990s.  I brought a mirror factory from China and made a contract  with Dendev and Shagdarsuren. I met with Sanjaasuren too. He told me where the office of Nyamdorj, the deputy Minister of Justice Ministry, is located. I met him to get the money for the mirror.
Nyamdorj demanded  from Davaaochir to export  3 train cars of full wood planks, two of which arrived in Ereen, China and one car was taken out by somebody else on the way there.

8,9 months after that I met Nyamdorj at the Correctional Authority Agency and he said to see him at his office when needed. One month later I met him in Sanjaasuren's office and he said he could not help with fertilizer  but he could  supply  with planks. After that Sanjaasuren went to China on the mirror factory business.

The deputy chairman of Amgalan's correctional facility Mr.Lkhagvasuren  told me to accompany   Minister Nyamdorj on his China trip. He drove me with his own car to the train station and told me that Minister Nyamdorj is in train car #4.  He bought me a ticket in car # 5.  On the way I went to car#4 and saw Nyamdorj being with Yan Ju Hua and 2 other Mongols. Nyamdorj an Yan have asked me once to go to train-restaurant to eat. I refused to go.  In Ereen arrived, Nyamdorj, Yan and I went to a restaurant to eat.

Page 2.

Next morning Nyamdorj  said he likes  fried cabbage and ate 2 pieces of something looked like a fried dough.
After that  Yan went to Nyamdorj's  room and changed his clothes and  drove in  2 cars which came  to pick us up. In the first car were Tun, Nyamdorj and Yan, and in the second were I with Tun's  husband.
We drove to a big hotel went in to a special room. We were greeted  by Tsao Da  Pen, Mao Guo Hua, a Chinese-Russian translator, and Lyu Shia Min. They introduced themselves to each other and Mao Guo Hua asked from Nyamdorj  questions about  "where he works, what position he has, how old is he, how long he's been working, who his family members are, how many children he has, whether he has a car, and where he lives-in an apartment or a ger.

Mao had a small briefcase and pushed some kind of button on it. He carried  his briefcase on his back. He said, "Our organization-the Culture  Center- wants to cooperate with you and we re interested in your Erdenet mining company and  places with iron deposits. Can you make a proposal at the Government level about this?" 

Mao was talking in Chinese and Nyamdorj was speaking in Russian and a Chinese man who speaks Russian has translated between these two. The meeting lasted for more than one hour. Afterwards all participants went to a hotel called "Beijing panda" and had lunch. After lunch everyone was brought back to the original hotel for an hour rest.
(Nyamdorj spent 6,7 days in Beijing. On 18th he returned to Ulaanbaatar).

Page 3.

On the way to Beijing , Yan assured that we don't have to worry and we will be received and will be given an apartment to stay. I translated it for Nyamdorj.  Tun Sho Bin was waiting at the train station  to welcome us and there were 2 or 3 men accompanying her. Tun Sho Bin, Nyamdorj and Yan drove in a Benz of grey color and I was in another car, and we drove to a hotel called Tende Dashin. The receptionist checked the passports  (mine, Nyamdorj's and Yan's) and registered us. She led  us a to  the 8th floor and two maids greeted Nyamdorj and showed him the room he is going to take. They introduced the room amenities like the fridge etc. and told him he can drink whatever he wants.

They placed me in a different room further from Nyamdorj's room. Yan went home.  We, Yan, Tun Sho Bin, Nyamdorj and I, ate at the hotel restaurant and  a liquor in a 750ml bottle was offered. Nyamdorj didn't drink by taking just a sip. Tun Sho Bin introduced us the prepared plan, printed, about where to go and what to see etc.  Nyamdorj said he agreed to it.  Tun Sho Bin instructed to serve the dish which Nyamdorj most likes. 

Page 4.
An alleged Chinese Minister named Li Jian  has invited  us to meet in a different hotel in Beijing.  Yan, Tun Sho Bin, Nyamdorj and the Russian-speaking Chinese translator have met  him. I was excluded.  Yan told me to wait outside. Li Jian talked about an hour with Nyamdorj.  After that Li Jian gave us lunch  at a different hotel called Bei Lai.  At the lunch  Li Jian gave a toast and thanked Nyamdorj for visiting. He said that they will meet later again. After lunch we went to our hotel  and rested for an hour before Tun Sho Bin drove us  to the "China Center of International Culture Exchange"  building. It was a 5-story building  located in west south from  our hotel.

They showed Nyamdorj the offices and offered him a tee. The conversation was carried out in Russian language. Then Tun told Yan to take the car and go out to see the city. We visited the biggest shopping center in Beijing. According to the schedule, on that evening a meeting with a Government official was planned. 
We went to a Government building near the Tienanmen square. A man named Pan Sun  greeted us and introduced himself as a Government official.

At this meeting were present: Tun Sho Bin, Yan, Nyamdorj, Ms.Lyu, Russian language translator, and myself.
The meeting lasted more than 2 hours. They talked about Chinese-Mongolian relationship, cooperation and the political  parties etc. The translation was in Russian language. Pan Sun was speaking in a sanji dialect which I didn't understand well.

Page 5.

Pan Sun gave dinner in honor of Nyamdorj at the Government building. Pictures were taken after dinner.
Pan Sun ordered Tun Sho Bin to show us Tianjin.  The next day we, Tun Shi Bin, Nyamdorj, Tun Sho Bin's husband, Mao Guo Hua, the Russian translator and I  went to Tianjin.  The mayor of Tianjin met Nyamdorj at a hotel. They introduced the city. Tun Sho Bin's husband and I were left at the hotel.  They excluded me from the lunch.

Nyamdorj received a table lamp with a clock and something in a  box as gift. In the evening we returned from Tianjin.  Yan and Nyamdorj drank the whole night; Yan has a basic knowledge of Mongolian and Russian.
Nyamdorj vomited and Yan has ordered me to clean it up. It needs to be cleaned before Tun Sho Bin  shows up, he said.
Nyamdorj drank 200 ml liquor in the morning and  aid he was doing much better, and ate.  Yan , Nyamdorj and I ate together.  On that day, Tun Sho Bin came and showed us the Beijing Zoo. We had lunch at the Zoo.

Mao Guo Hua and Tsao Da Pen have met 3 times with Nyamdorj separately. They didn't include me; don't know if they met at nights.
Yan and Nyamdorj would drink usually every night heavily (liquor and beer). Room cleaner would take the bottles out and put outside. The cost for drinks piled up  to 5120 Yuan.(drinks from the refrigerator)
Tun Sho Bin signed on the payment bill.

The room rate was $160 a day.  Every day the clothes were cleaned. The shirts and socks were washed and ironed every night. 
Yan gave Nyamdorj 800 Yuan on the 17th  to use for shopping and asked if it was enough. He said yes.

Page 6.
With  this money Nyamdorj bought candies for his wife and children, and 40 bottles of liquor with a label showing a bird. He was checking rings for his wife.  Later he received two albums full of pictures taken during his visit.
Tun Sho Bin's husband gave him silk for making deel, and a beautiful snuff bottle ( in a nice case with bird picture on it) of a white  color with greenish tone. The stopper was red of color.

Tsao Da Pen and Mao Guo Hua gave Nyamdorj  something in a cartoon box as a gift.  Tun Sho Bin, Mao Guo Hua, Yan, and Tun's husband  came to say goodbye when he left for Mongolia. At the train station Mao Guo Hua gave Nyamdorj  something in  a big,yellow, hard paper envelope saying that it was for Chinese Embassy official named Wan, and Nyamdorj put it in his briefcase.

On his way back, Nyamdorj was saying things like "Thanks to Yan I had the opportunity to visit Beijing and I liked it. It sure did cost a lot and how I am going to pay back..."
(Bold and Tseden-Ish have invited Yan and brought him)
Tun Sho Bin paid for Nyamdorj's train ticket. In Ulaanbaatar Nyamdorj was welcomed  by someone who was dressed in  correctional official's uniform.
(Bold and Tseden-Ish have initially introduced  Nyamdorj with Yan)


Secret material # 14
Names of  these 6 people on this picture taken on May 23, 1990, are:
- From the left, the Russian translator (name is unknown), Tao Shin Tsai, Nyamdorj (pointed with red arrow),  Mao Guo Hua, Tsao Da Pen, Ms.Lyu (took notes)
The names of these 7  people on this picture are :
- It was taken in Spring of 1992. From the left, Tao Shin Tsai, Tsao Da Pen, Nyamdorj (pointed with red arrow), Pan Sun, Tun Sho Bin, Yan Ju Hua, the Russian language translator

Secret material # 15

To the Cultural attache of the Chinese Embassy in Mongolia, Mr. Jao  Wen Jun

The China Center of International culture  exchange

Comrade Wen Jun, I couldn't write you lately and inform you about the latest, and so I am writing it now.
It needs new efforts to improve the cultural cooperation between China and Mongolia. Few days ago the Deputy Minister of Justice, Mr.Nyamdorj visited us on a private trip, an idea which was organized by the Cultural Center and introduced  to him through my friend. I met him few times and we talked a lot.  We got to know each other better and we discussed about establishing a cooperation with the Center and , doing  some trading businesses,  and building a cultural relationship.

We were left happy with the results and agreed to talk more in detail  later on. This is going to be a bridge for future communication. Since you are in Mongolia, it would be easier for you to communicate with him and that is why I want to  introduce him. Communicate through the Embassy about any business matter and inform the Center.

Comrade Guo Hua  was thinking about writing you a letter as well, but he was abroad on business and came back to meet Nyamdorj in Beijing just before he was about to leave.   He let me write this letter and informed the Center about the situation as well. The situation here is excellent.  I'll let you know next time more in detail about it. See you in Beijing.

signed by Da Pen     2.10.1992

The office phone number is changed to   4652319, and the number of the Center to  4674422.

translated from Chinese by Lkhamsuren

Secret material # 16

Business cards of "China Center of International Culture Exchange" officials"

Secret material # 17

(from the script of agents who worked on Nyamdorj's case).

... - Tun Sho Bin's husband and his acquaintance have arrived in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and met with Nyamdorj at the UB hotel. Bold translated for them.
- When Yan met with Nyamdorj , Yan  asked  if  he (Nyamdorj)  wants to visit Beijing again, and if his  wife wants to come with. Yan also said that he can arrange all that.
- The public and the media should not know about Nyamdorj's visit to China, said Yan.
When Nyamdorj was in Beijing, Yan told him not to tell others  about meeting he had with officials. 
Tun Sho Bin warned Nyamdorj that he  should not use the phone communication, but can send letters through Yan. 
- the people who met with Nyamdorj  mentioned in their conversation about secret service agents. A woman named Ms.Lyu (wears glasses) took notes  during the meetings with Nyamdorj.
- based on the conversations of Culture Center- people, and on their meeting with Nyamdorj, it was clear that they are not ordinary citizens. They work under the umbrella name of Culture Center.
- the purpose of inviting  Nyamdorj to  visit  China is to study Mongolia's situation through Nyamdorj and work together with him.

Final thoughts from Sodon:

MP Nyamdorj Ts.
It is a shame that our officials act like a puppy who would follow anybody when offered food. The only difference is that our Government official, in this case Mr.Nyamdorj Ts., has a brain to think what he was doing, when a puppy has no ability to think if that food-offering person is an enemy or a friend. Since Nyamdorj is a person with higher education and  took an oath to serve the country, his action cannot be viewed like one of that puppy. He acted on purpose and sold  his honor  cheap.  He served foreign people with information in exchange for money, food and alcohol. He betrayed his country. So he can be called  as a traitor. 
And lastly, there are many potential traitors  among the MPs and Government officials from the Mongolian People's Party.  Beware of those  traitors!
To  Nyamdorj, one final advice: Renounce your Mongolian citizenship and move to China! You will be safe there.